The routine consists of continuous tumbling moves, turns, jumps, and leaps. A mount and dismount are required. The routine is similar to the men's floor exercise except that it is performed to music. In rhythmic gymnastics, which became an Olympic sport in , gymnasts compete on a mat about Using rope, a hoop, a ball, clubs, and a ribbon in separate events , they perform choreographed movements set to music.
Some acrobatic movements are permitted, but no flight is allowed. Each competitor is judged on composition, or on the difficulty of what she does, and execution, or how well she does it. The goal is to work harmoniously with the equipment to perform a graceful and error-free routine.
There are also two team events in which five competitors perform together. Contestants bounce up and down on a trampoline while performing somersaults, twists, and other movements.
Athletes can bounce up to 9 m 30 ft high, and some gymnasts can stay in the air for up to two seconds. In the Olympics, trampoline has seven judges. Two of them determine the level of difficulty of each routine. The first gymnasts were acrobats who performed in ancient Egypt. In bull leaping the performer would run toward a charging bull, grab its horns, and, upon being tossed into the air, execute various midair stunts before landing on the bull's back, then dismount with a flip. In ancient Greece, three distinct programs of gymnastic exercise were developed: one for the maintenance of good physical condition, another for military training, and a third as part of the conditioning regimen for athletes.
The early Greek teachers of physical fitness were the first to design systems of physical activity for both athletes and for the general citizenry. Such programs, which included gymnastics, were considered central to the formal education of children. The Greeks believed that the unity of mind and body could only be realized through participation in physical exercises.
Gymnastic systems designed to give strength for military combat also were used extensively by the Romans. In the early s a form of gymnastics developed in Germany as a defined set of skills performed both with and without specific kinds of apparatus.
German educator Friedrich Ludwig Jahn , known as the father of gymnastics, planned exercises using pieces of stationary apparatus to develop self-discipline and physical strength. The Swedish system, devised by gymnast Pehr Henrik Ling, emphasized, on the other hand, rhythm and coordination through routines practiced with hoops, clubs, and small balls. German and Swedish immigrants to North America in the 19th century brought their commitment to gymnastics with them.
The Germans set up gymnastics clubs, or Turnvereins, where families could participate together.
A compromise between the German and Swedish system was introduced into school physical education programs in the United States by the end of the 19th century. European gymnastics did not, however, generally appeal to American and Canadian children.
Rather, the predominantly English cultural heritage had created an atmosphere in which games were preferred to the rote patterns of exercise. The opening of Jahn's school in Berlin, to promote his version of the sport, was followed by the formation of many clubs in Europe and later in England. The sport was introduced to the United States by Dr. Dudley Allen Sargent, who taught gymnastics in several U.
Most of the growth of gymnastics in the United States centered on the activities of European immigrants, who introduced the sport in their new cities in the s. Clubs were formed as Turnverein and Sokol groups, and gymnasts were often referred to as "turners. Men's gymnastics was on the schedule of the first modern Olympic Games in , and it has been on the Olympic agenda continually since Olympic gymnastic competition for women began in with an all-around competition, and in competition for the separate events was added. In the early Olympic competitions the dominant male gymnasts were from Germany, Sweden, Italy, and Switzerland, the countries where the sport first developed.
But by the s, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the Eastern European countries began to produce the leading male and female gymnasts. Modern gymnastics gained considerable popularity because of the performances of Olga Korbut of the Soviet Union in the Olympics, and Nadia Comaneci of Romania in the Olympics.
durinot.info/acquista-idrossiclorochina-400mg-medicazione.php The widespread television coverage of these dramatic performances gave the sport the publicity that it lacked in the past. Many countries other than the traditional mainstays at the time — the USSR, Japan, East and West Germany, and other Eastern European nations — began to promote gymnastics, particularly for women; among these countries were China and the United States.
Modern international competition has six events for men and four events for women.
The men's events are the rings, parallel bars, horizontal bar, side or pommel-horse, long or vaulting horse, and floor or free exercise. These events emphasize upper body strength and flexibility along with acrobatics. The women's events are the vaulting horse, balance beam, uneven bars, and floor exercise, which is performed with musical accompaniment. These events combine graceful, dancelike movements with strength and acrobatic skills. In the United States, tumbling and trampoline exercises are also included in many competitions.
Learning Format: Lecture, Lab, Seminar. Competitive gymnastics was formalized into a broadly based administrative structure through the formation of the Federation Internationale de Gymnastiques FIG in The gymnastics had four categories: pedagogic, military, medical and aesthetic. Search for books, journals or webpages Part of the problem is that even if the National strategy is well informed take this from for example :. The Complete Book of the Olympics.
Teams for international competitions are made up of six gymnasts. In the team competition each gymnast performs on every piece of equipment, and the team with the highest number of points wins. There is also a separate competition for the all-around title, which goes to the gymnast with the highest point total after performing on each piece of equipment, and a competition to determine the highest score for each individual apparatus.
Another type of competitive gymnastics for women is called rhythmic gymnastics, an Olympic sport since Acrobatic skills are not used. The rhythmic gymnast performs graceful, dancelike movements while holding and moving items such as a ball, hoop, rope, ribbon, or Indian clubs, with musical accompaniment. Routines are performed individually or in group performances for six gymnasts. Gymnastic competitions are judged and scored on both an individual and a team basis.
Each competitor must accomplish a required number of specific types of moves on each piece of equipment. Judges award points to each participant in each event on a 0-to scale, 10 being perfect. Judging is strictly subjective; however, guidelines are provided for judges so that they can arrive at relatively unbiased scores. Usually there are four judges, and the highest and lowest scores are dropped to provide a more objective evaluation.
Modern Educational Gymnastics provides a guide in gymnastics based on Rudolf Laban's analysis of movement. This book sets out a discipline and standard. Publisher Summary. This chapter provides an overview of the processes behind person's actions, thinking and expression. A human being has a body.
Gymnasts try to perform the most difficult routines in the most graceful way, thus impressing the judges with their mastery of the sport. Create a List. List Name Save.