A model of the Temple of the Magna Mater on the Palatine. Plautus Pseudolus was presented here in BCE. A large number of the audience sat on the steps. How did Plautus use the Greek comedies with which he worked?
Until the end of the 19th century New Comedy was known only in scattered lines and passages quoted by ancient authors, and there was barely any material on which to build a comparison. Things changed with the investigation of papyrus deposits in Egypt, from which substantial passages of several plays emerged. The concentration was on scenes: what could attract attention in language and dramatic action or colourfully imaginative style. A further point of originality about his work was that he had conducted it not, as many of his predecessors had done, with the aim of clearing aside Plautinism and finding Menander; quite the reverse: of finding what it was that had made Plautus so successful, so richly entertaining, among his contemporaries.
By and large, contemporaries only: subsequent references to him by Roman authors are mostly patronising and dismissive.
Gellius, the 2nd-century CE collector of literary controversies, commented that Roman comedies were pleasant entertainment so long as you read them without reference to their Greek originals; as soon as you did, they seemed to be feeble trash 2. One can make a case for these put-downs of Roman comedies. The critics will not have seen the plays, only read them.
Readers tend to look for interesting, consistent characters and coherent plots. The strength of the play lies in the sequence of varied individual scenes. Thus each of these fanciful words is chiastically derivative, Greek-Latin-Greek then Latin-Greek-Latin, though it entirely spoils the effect to spell it out. When the plot is going well the slave will find hyperbolical and often mythological expressions to congratulate himself. As Tranio:. What about me as the third? I perform deathless feats all on my own. He celebrates:.
I am the great King Philip — o what a lovely day! Scenes in plays very often involve the meeting of two characters in rivalry, competition or dispute.
Plautus turns these into a sort of ballet. The slave who has stolen the gold sees his master: he wants to buy his freedom.
pocdafourreli.ga: Greek and Roman Comedy: Translations and Interpretations of Four Representative Plays (): Shawn O'Bryhim, George Fredric. Editorial Reviews. Review. "Those of us who teach ancient comedy in translation are well pocdafourreli.ga: Greek and Roman Comedy: Translations and Interpretations of Four Representative Plays eBook: Shawn O'Bryhim, George Fredric.
The master can only win his girl if he finds the gold and returns it. Sure and all I thought I just heard the voice of someone speaking round here. Do I see my master? Do I see my slave? Or in The Bacchis Sisters. The sisters are twins. Young man A loves twin 1; young man B loves twin 2; A has seen B and twin 2 together but thinks twin 2 is twin 1.
Rage and jealousy. Is this my friend?
Dance, Old Man, Dance! The Torture of Knemon in Menander's Dyskolos pp. Dyskolos; or, The Grouch pp. Plautus and Roman New Comedy pp. Cleostrata in Charge: Tradition and Variation in Casina pp. Casina pp.
Terence and Roman New Comedy p. Who is the Parasite? Giving and Taking in Phormio pp. Select Bibliography p. Phormio pp. Completes the equivalent of a year's elementary level in one semester. Offered every year. Introduction to the essentials of Latin, the language of Vergil, Caesar, and Seneca.
Five hours of instruction weekly, with both oral and written drills and an emphasis on the ability to read Latin rather than merely translate it. Teaches second-year students to read Latin prose through comprehensive grammar review; emphasis on the proper techniques for reading correct phrase division, the identification of clauses, and reading in order ; and practicing reading at sight.
Writings of the greatest Roman poet, focusing on his most celebrated poem, the Aeneid. Students learn to read Latin metrically to reflect the necessary sound for full appreciation of the writing. Readings in political and literary history illustrate the setting in the Augustan Age in which the Aeneid was written and enjoyed, the relationship of the poem to the other classical epics, and its influence on the poetry of later times. Introduction to the complex but highly beautiful language of ancient Greece—the language of Homer, Sophocles, Thucydides, and Plato. Students learn the essentials of ancient Greek vocabulary, morphology, and syntax.
Five hours of instruction weekly, with both oral and written drills and an emphasis on the ability to read Greek rather than merely translate it. Reading of Plato's Apology and Crito and selections from the Republic. The purpose is to develop facility in reading Attic prose. Supplements readings in Greek with lectures on Socrates and the Platonic dialogues. Extensive readings in the Iliad or Odyssey. Proficiency in scansion is expected, as well as a good command of Homeric vocabulary. Relevant topics ranging from the Homeric question to problems of oral tradition through the archaeological evidence of Bronze Age Greece and Troy are discussed in class or developed by the student through oral or written reports.
Each term, the department offers one course in advanced Latin and one course in advanced Greek. Courses are taught on a cycle; students may take up to six consecutive terms without repeating material. Offered every three years. Consideration is given to the growth and development of Roman epic, its Greek antecedents, and its relationship to the Romans' construction of their past.
Study of the development of the Latin hexameter is also included. Offering extensive readings from the prose works of Cicero, provides readings in Latin of a selection from Cicero's speeches, letters, oratorical works, and philosophical works. Cicero's place in the development of Latin literature is also considered, as is the social and political world of the late Republic that he inhabited. Provides extensive readings from the works of Rome's greatest lyric and elegiac poets, including Catullus, Horace, Tibullus, Propertius, and Ovid.
The various lyric meters adapted by the Romans are considered, as is the development of the Latin love elegy. A selection of plays from Plautus and Terence. The development of Roman comedy, its relationship to Greek New Comedy, and its social and cultural place in Roman life are also discussed.
Some facility in Plautine and Terentian meter is expected. With extensive readings from Horace's, Juvenal's, and Persius's satires, traces the development of the satiric mode from its earliest beginnings in Rome to its flowering under the Empire. The relationship of satire to the social world of Rome, including its treatment of money, women, political figures, and social climbers, is also examined. Readings from the three masters of Roman historiography: Sallust, Livy, and Tacitus. Also considers the rise and development of history in Rome, its relationship to myth, and its narrative structure and manner.
Extensive readings from the lyric, elegiac, and iambic poets of Greece. Studies the use of the various lyric forms, the different meters employed by the archaic poets, and the social functions of archaic poetry.
A plot summary at the end of the introduction provides the background necessary to understand the events and characters discussed in the essay, which concentrates on an important theme in the play. All the same, enough can be recovered to make basic sense of the way Aristophanes put the Euripidean text to work for his own purposes. Dikaiopolis comes out of his house. By the god, they wanted to take you, but you refused. Let those of us who are his relatives bear this burden.
Readings from the two fifth-century masters of Greek historiography, Herodotus and Thucydides. Examines the themes, narrative structure, and methodology of both writers, as well as giving some consideration to the rise of history writing in Greece and its relationship to myth and epic. Readings of several plays from among those of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. Spoken and choral meter are studied, and the role of performance, dramaturgy, and the place of theatre in Athenian society is also examined.